For becoming an expert in Python programming language, the most important you must be well acquainted with is its basic concepts. Without having a good command over it, it’s impossible for you to achieve mastery in Python programming.
As it is always said- “Without a solid foundation, you’ll have trouble creating anything of value.”
Data Structure is probably the most important concept of all. It is often regarded as the building blocks of any program. A concept that is needed to be studied by heart and will be with you throughout your career.
Data structures include stack, queue, lists, trees, sets, graphs, etc. You must have the ability to choose which data structure is suitable for a particular problem and this is attained only when you dive deep into it.
A function in Python is a block of code that performs a certain task whenever you call it. A function helps a programmer in eradicating the problem of rewriting the same block of code multiple times.
A function can be called anytime and anywhere. Instead of writing 100 lines of code repeatedly, you can call a function 100 times and this is why it is an ambassador of code reusability.
Loops, a concept that enhances the efficiency of Python programming to a great extent. Loops are used when you need to perform a certain task repeatedly for ‘n’ number of times, where ‘n’ can only be a whole number.
Suppose you need to print the name of your institution for 1000 times, so here’s where the concept of loops proves to be quite handy.
It is a normal dictionary like Data Structure in Python, that comes under collections that are unordered, indexed and mutable. A dictionary in Python holds data in comma-separated key-value pairs.
Keys in dictionaries are unique. This is exactly similar to a real-life dictionary where you can search for a value if you already know the key.
Instead of supporting arrays, Python uses the concept of lists of storing data sequentially. Lists are an important Data Structure in Python and every programmer is supposed to be well familiar with it.
A list is an ordered collection of objects that can be accessed through its indexes. Unlike arrays, a list is a collection of heterogeneous objects whose values can be changed, making them mutable.
List Comprehension is a methodology for constructing lists rapidly. It provides you with the ability to perform complex operations on lists with just a single line of code.
It allows you to perform operations that are simple, with conditions, with nested conditions, with if-else conditions, and much more.
A set is a collection of objects that are neither ordered nor indexed. Sets are mutable and can be iterated. Sets hold unique values and do not allow duplicate values. It is a concept that is similar to the one you’ve studied in maths.
It is a collection of comma-separated objects that are enclosed inside curly braces.
Tuples, almost similar to lists, are a type of Data Structure that stores data sequentially. The only thing that sets tuples and lists apart is that lists are mutable whereas tuples are immutable.
It is a collection of comma-separated objects that are enclosed inside the parenthesis.
A string is a sequential collection of characters that are immutable. It is a sequence of bytes that represents Unicode characters. Though Python does not have a character data type, a single character denotes a string of length 1.
Source : Python Concepts